Licensing or Registration of Virtual Asset Service Providers: A Framework for Regulatory Harmony

In the rapidly evolving landscape of virtual assets, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) provides essential guidance on the licensing or registration of Virtual Asset Service Providers (VASPs).

This article delves into the nuanced recommendations provided by the FATF, offering insights into the considerations and processes that countries should adopt to regulate VASPs effectively.

Establishing Regulatory Authorities:

Countries are advised to designate one or more competent authorities responsible for licensing and/or registering VASPs. This fundamental step ensures a centralized and coordinated approach to oversight, essential for maintaining the integrity of the virtual asset ecosystem.

Choosing Between Existing and New Regimes:

Countries face the choice of integrating VASPs into existing licensing/registration regimes or creating new, purpose-built frameworks. While utilizing existing regimes offers expediency and leverages established compliance knowledge, a new regime could cater specifically to the unique characteristics of the virtual asset sector, focusing on technological capacities in AML/CFT analysis.

Determining Scope of Licensing or Registration:

The FATF emphasizes that, at a minimum, VASPs should be licensed or registered in the jurisdiction(s) where they are created. This includes both legal persons, involving mechanisms like incorporation or registration, and natural persons, requiring registration in the jurisdiction of their place of business.

Extending Jurisdictional Requirements:

Jurisdictions may also extend licensing or registration requirements to VASPs offering products/services to customers within or conducting operations from their jurisdiction. This broader coverage aims to mitigate risks associated with the cross-border accessibility of virtual assets, emphasizing a cautious approach in the evolving landscape.

Identification Mechanisms:

Countries are urged to implement mechanisms for identifying unlicensed or unregistered VASPs, including the use of blockchain analytics tools, web-scraping, public feedback channels, and information from reporting institutions. These mechanisms are crucial for maintaining compliance and combating illegal activities within the virtual asset sector.

Criteria for Licensing or Registration:

VASPs seeking licensing or registration should meet stringent criteria set by relevant authorities. These criteria should address AML/CFT obligations, necessitating VASPs to demonstrate the implementation of robust programs and risk controls, especially pertaining to the characteristics of their activities.

Prioritizing Applications and Imposing Conditions:

Recognizing the potential influx of licensing or registration applications, relevant authorities are advised to prioritize based on factors such as the size and nature of VASP activities. Imposing conditions, contingent on risk assessments, can include resident executive director requirements, specific financial criteria, and disclosure obligations.


As the virtual asset ecosystem continues to expand, the licensing or registration of VASPs becomes pivotal for ensuring a secure and transparent financial environment. The FATF’s guidance provides a comprehensive framework for countries to adapt their regulatory approach, fostering a culture of compliance and risk mitigation in the dynamic realm of virtual assets.